Day 6 of the secret island workshop set up.

A Tour of the Workshop

Walk through the shop and see where it all happens from charcoal making to finishing a blade. The workshop set up is fairly simple and requires but a few basic tools. All of the tools here are either antique, handmade, or both. Many blacksmith tools can be made by the smith, including the forge, specialized tongs, hammers, and chisels.

Charcoal Kiln

The fuel for the forge is made from construction scrap and deadfall pine wood in an outdoor kiln.

More about making charcoal: How Charcoal is Made

Charcoal making kiln
Charcoal making kiln for creating softwood bladesmithing charcoal.


The forge is a simply constructed bladesmithing charcoal forge. Two rows of bricks contain the charcoal but allow for long pieces to be heated in the centre. In addition to heating the steel to shape blades, the forge can be used to anneal, silver solder, and patinate copper.

More about forging blades: Forging a Tanto Blade

Charcoal bladesmith forge
Forging a tanto in the sideblast charcoal blade smithing forge.
Charcoal bladesmith forge
A scaled down swordsmith forge for making tanto consists mainly of two rows of bricks, the air comes in the left side near the bottom. Watch this forge being built.
Charcoal bladesmith forge
A full sized traditional swordsmith forge is set into the floor allowing the strikers a full swing at the lowered anvil with large mukozuchi hammers. Read about traditional swordsmith forges.

Fuigo Box Bellows

The bellows provide the air to the forge to increase the temperature of the fire. Japanese style box bellows are constructed almost entirely of wood and supply a highly controlled air blast to the forge on both the push and the pull stroke.

More about the benefits of a Japanese swordsmith’s style fuigo box bellows: Why *You* Need A Swordsmith’s Fuigo Box Bellows

Fuigo Box Bellows
Japanese swordsmith’s style fuigo box bellows made from scrap Red Cedar and Nootka Cypress.
Fuigo Box Bellows
Full size Japanese swordsmith’s style fuigo box bellows built by Pierre Nadeau of


Bladesmithing anvils need not be more than a rectangular block of steel, but this eighty year old tool allows me to do other blacksmithing work from time to time. The anvil is the table which supports the steel as it is hammered into shape. Portable or part time anvils are good in the 100-130 pound range, a shop anvil for regular work is better in the 150-250 pound range, depending on the work. For Japanese sword style bladesmithing, a thin layer of water is used on the anvil to keep the fire scale off of the blade as it is forged.

Read about setting up the island workshop: Workshop Setup | Start at day 1: Island Workshop Day 1

Blacksmithing anvil in traditional workshop
John Brooks England, London Pattern Anvil, c. 1930

Charcoal Bin

Finished charcoal is chopped and stored in a metal bin for use in the forge. The steel bin helps keep the charcoal dry, and prevents sparks from igniting the large stored supply before its time. The shovel was made from farm machinery almost a century ago by a prairie blacksmith.

Watch a video about making charcoal: How Charcoal is Made or see how charcoal is chopped and sorted for swordsmithing.

Charcoal Bin with DIY Shovel
Handmade softwood charcoal chopped and ready to fuel the forge.
Sumi-kiri chopping softwood charcoal for swordsmithing
The process of chopping and screening reclaimed softwood charcoal in preparation for forging.


Blacksmiths must have a variety of long-handled tongs for holding hot steel as it is shaped. Tongs must hold steel tightly to avoid slipping or dropping under the forces of hammering. This set has been modified from a more standard type and is designed specifically to hold the tapered tangs of tanto as they are in the later stages of forging.

Bladesmithing tongs to hold tapered blade tangs
Bladesmithing tongs designed to hold tapered blade tangs. Often the jaws of older tongs will be modified for specific purposes and jobs.


Bladesmiths often use two or three different hammers during the process of forging a blade. Initially, a heavy hammer reduces the stock to approximate dimensions and then a lighter hammer takes care of the controlled shaping and finishing through the sunobe stage and beyond.

Hammers may be made by the smith for specific weight and shape preferences. A recommended weight range for the large hand hammer is 1.5kg-2kg (~3.5lbs-4.5lbs) and the smaller one is 1.2kg-1.4kg (~2.5lbs-3lbs). The large mukozuchi for a striker is usually between 3貫/kan (11.25kg / 24.8lb) and 1貫/kan (3.75kg / 8.26lb).

Read more about this hammer and find out why *You* Need A Japanese Swordsmith’s Hammer.

Bladesmithing hammer: You Need A Japanese Swordsmith’s Hammer
Japanese style bladesmithing hammer designed to direct more force over a smaller area. The weight-forward design works well when forging thinner work like blades.
Mukozuchi: Japanese swordsmith's sledge hammer.
Two sizes of mukozuchi (striking sledges) forged to spec by Shawn Cunningham (~6.5kg / 14lb) and Jake James (~5kg / 12lb) respectively.

Bamboo Water Scoop and Straw Teboki Brush

Forging with a thin film of water on the anvil and hammer prevents forge scale or oxide from being hammered into the surface of the steel. The hot steel instantly vaporizes the water and the resulting steam explosion blows the scale off of the work, keeping it clean as it is worked. This type of bamboo scoop is a traditional style tool for applying water to the surface of the anvil or the hot steel.

The straw teboki (手箒, hand broom) serves a similar purpose of cleaning scale off the anvil and applying a thin layer of water, and is also used to shield the smith from flying sparks and scale when a striker is using the large hammer.

Island Blacksmith: Hand forged knives from reclaimed steel.
About the quickest and most useful traditional tool for controlled application of water, taking only minutes to create from natural materials.

Leg Vise

A blacksmithing standby, the leg and thick forged jaws can handle most anything from filing to hammering. The vise holds the blade while it is being profiled with a file. In addition to very sturdy construction, a post vise has an iron leg that goes straight to the floor under the rear jaw. This transfers the energy of hammer blows to the floor instead of breaking out the bolts mounting it to the bench. The long handle allows you to really clamp hard on a piece of iron, and the smooth jaws do not mar the soft, hot iron.

A vise should be mounted at the height of a ‘smith’s elbow for operations such as filing and bending. This tool was forged around a century ago and is on its last, and only, leg. It is still mounted to the original wooden stand I have used for it since 1992.

See it in the process of making a blade: Shaping a Tanto Blade (Ara-Shiage)

Blacksmith's Leg Vise
Forged vise with sturdy jaws and a leg supported on the ground.

Sen Dai

The staple vise solves the dual problems of getting clear access to the sides of a blade, and of steel jaws marring the soft steel of the tang. Various wooden wedges are used to hold a blade securely for scraping and filing.

See it in action: Shaping a Tanto Blade (Ara-Shiage)

Sen Dai - staple vise
A staple vise for holding blades parallel to the ground, wooden wedges prevent damage to the steel.

Quench Tank

Hot water provides a proper cooling rate for clay coated steel to become hard without cracking. The water is heated with waste heat from the forge prior to yaki-ire. This tank is aluminum, but will have a limited lifespan due to the alkalinity of the water from bits of floating charcoal ash in the shop.

More about the process of hardening a blade: Yaki-ire (clay tempering)

Water quench tank for yaki-ire
Heated water in preparation for quenching a clay tempered blade.

Togi Dai (Hand Polishing Bench)

The coarse stones sit on a wooden support, fresh water is splashed or poured over the stones as needed, and the tank catches the swarf. Finer and finer waterstones are used as the blade takes shape and becomes smoother.

See it in the process of polishing a blade: Polishing (togi)

Togi Dai - polishing bench for waterstones
Coarse waterstones are used for the rough shaping stages after hardening by yaki-ire.
Togi Dai - polishing bench for waterstones
A series of fine natural waterstones from Japan are used to refine and polish blades once the fittings are complete.

Post Drill

The post drill is used to create the mekugi-ana in the tang of the blade. Turned by hand, progress can be carefully watched and adjusted as necessary. This machine was made in Canada around the turn of the century and still has some miles left to go. Cast into the frame are the model number, 614 (from 1914), and the words, “Can. Blower & Forge Co. Ltd. Kitchener, Ont”.

More about the post drill: Post Drill Repaired

Hand Powered Post Drill
Turn of the century Canadian post drill, powered by hand. Post vise holding a small sen dai on the left.

Sun Tiger Hand Grinder

A hand powered grinding wheel is used to sharpen, repair, and maintain hard tools like sen scrapers and broken chisels. Slow speeds keep the risk of overheating the steel to a minimum.

Hand Powered Grinding Wheel
Bench mounted hand grinder, made last-century by Sun Tiger (朝日虎印) in Japan.

See a photographic history of the blacksmith shops and creative spaces I have worked in since 1990: Workshop History