You Need A Japanese Swordsmith’s Hammer

Three reasons why *you* need a Japanese swordsmith’s hammer for forging knives.

  1. Size – the small face is better suited for working on a narrow target, keeping the hammer from hitting the anvil as the bevel gets thinner
  2. Weight – though the face is small, the long body carries the weight of a much larger hammer behind it, focusing the energy to better move the steel
  3. Balance – with practice, the balance of the weight forward design causes it to walk neatly along the blade while the hammer does most of the work for you

…and besides that, they just look cool. So if you are a bladesmith, find one or make one.

One or two hand hammers (tezuchi, 手鎚) are all that is required for most bladesmithing, a larger one for rough work and a smaller one for finishing. Individual preferences will vary, but a recommended weight range for the large one (手鎚I) is 1.5kg-2kg (~3.5lb-4.5lb) and the smaller one (手鎚II) 1.2kg-1.4kg (~2.5lb-3lb). Swordsmiths and some knifemakers will often have a smaller third size (手鎚III) 0.9kg-1.1kg (~1.9lbs-2.4lb) for finishing, planishing, or cold adjusting work over a stump.

Large, long handled mukozuchi (向鎚) for a striker are found in several sizes between 3貫/kan (11.25kg / 24.8lb) and 1貫/kan (3.75kg / 8.26lb) with just under 2貫/kan (6.5kg / 14.3lb) being a solid mid-range size. Their handles are about 120cm in length.

Japanese swordsmith's hammer.
A small tezuchi (hand hammer) made from a reclaimed top tool, note that the eye is usually angled slightly downward but in this case the naturally kinked grain of the handle adds some extra angle.
Japanese swordsmith's hammer.
A large tezuchi modified from an older hammer, note that the handle side of the head is straight while the taper to the face is created on the opposite side. Watch a video of the handle installation.
Tezuchi: Japanese swordsmith's hammer.
The angle of the face is not parallel to the handle and depends on the height of the anvil, the weight of the hammer, and the smith’s preference. A common starting point for those used sitting at the anvil is to make the handle just touch the same plane as the face is sitting on, less angle for those used standing at the anvil.
Tezuchi: Japanese swordsmith's hammer.
A large tezuchi forged by Pierre Nadeau of, note that the standard way to form the head is to leave the bulge created by drifting the rectangular eye.
Mukozuchi: Japanese swordsmith's sledge hammer.
Two sizes of mukozuchi (striking sledges) forged to spec by Shawn Cunningham and Jake James respectively. There is a unique wedge-free way that Japanese hammer handles are installed.

Some hammer theory from Taro~san:

Though more of a dog’s head style, the one below was entirely hand forged from a length of scrap axle (~4140?) rod about 1.5″ in diameter and 6″ long (about 3lbs. according to Practical Blacksmithing p.267 – which is not in all editions). A fellow metal worker and aspiring smith, Anthony Rabideau, was over from the mainland a few weeks ago and assisted as the striker for the initial forming and punching work. The rod was upset on one end until shortened by about half an inch, widening the face end enough to form the octagon shape and still be left with a 1.5″ diameter. Anthony made a version of his custom combination slitter and punch from an old chisel to create the eye, and we forged a drift to open it up.

Yesterday I finished shaping and filing the face, then reheated the piece for some clean up forging of the sides and around the eye, hardened and tempered it, cut off the excess half inch above the eye, and then cleaned it all up with a sen and finished by draw filing. The face is a somewhat rounded 1 3/8″ square with diagonally rounded corners and the edges parabolic-ally rounded off to prevent marks. The head tapers down to 1″ by 1 5/16″ above the eye and the length of the head is 5 7/8″. The handle was hand shaped from an old axe handle and is currently 12″ long but may be shortened and tuned as I get used to the hammer. Sealed with a coat of pure tung oil.

Points to note are that the length of the head and the angle relative to the handle mainly depend on the height of your anvil, generally a slight backwards tilt and length of not more than 4-5″ will work with a standard western anvil setup. Too much angle/length and your hand will be lower than it should when striking (like a file maker’s hammer), too little and your shoulder will be raised which is not good either. To be more true to form, I would recommend making the weight a little less forward by keeping the diameter consistent or starting with a slightly larger but shorter billet and tapering down near the face.

Material: Scrap steel axle, reclaimed axe handle

Vancouver Island Blacksmith: Hand forged tanto and hand crafted knives.
The face of a bladesmithing hammer should be fairly small, very slightly rounded in the middle to prevent rolling or mis-strikes, and well rounded at the edges to prevent marks.

How to swing a mukozuchi (striker’s hammer):

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